That's a pic of the venerable Mosin Nagant.
It's a three line rifle (20 caliber - PROPER 30 caliber, like Enfield) first made by a factory in Chatellerault, France. Not a lot of people know that. This was from 1891-1895.
After that, a vast number of comapnies all over the world took over, includin the USA, (by Remington & Westinghouse, ~800K each). Mine is made by Tula.
The Mosin was intended to replave the Berdan, which was crap because it held only 1 round, and thus underperformed on the battlefield. Mosin holds 5 (6 if you manage to somehow stuff a round in the barrel).
After that, this weapon was used in a huge number of wars, and it is highly likely that no weapon has been used to kill as many people as the Mosin Nagant. (Maybe a machete... but even that tool...)
Best & worst:
The best variants are those made in Poland and Finland. The Finnish are especially sought after and of high quality. They are however not three line, but somewhat less - the ammo doesn't quite fit between models, causing accuracy issues, mostly with the soviet types.
The lesser variants would be the Soviet era ones made while they were being attacked by nazis. Running your finger along the barrels of those rifles, you can feel the toolmarks.
Form & function:
A very ancient looking thing, resembling somewhat a black-powder rifle, they are a very long weapon. There's a lot of wood on that thing. I find that it looks very nice. Attaching the bayonet adds an extra foot, but also makes the rifle feel better, psychologically. Because you know, it's pointy, and it's so very satisfying to know you can gore your adversary to death.
(According to Icelandic law, it is illegal to own a bayonet, because it's a knife, but you can get a Mosin Nagant killing tool. Because it's a screwdriver.)
A Mosin Nagant bayonet.
The 91/30 type is rather front heavy, but feels good in the hand, and has fairly low recoil. The same cannot be said about the M44. The M44 does however have a swing-forward bayonet, which is neat.
The action is smooth and idiot-proof, the safety is ... generally left off... the front sight is hooded, making the rifle better looking, but mostly this is to keep it from getting bent out of shape. It balances nicely when aimed.
The trigger is nice and smooth (in my rifle anyway - no two seem to be alike. And there are something like 25 million of them)
Accuracy is somewhat lacking - but that's an ammo problem. My rifle is Soviet, and I can only get finnish bullets, and they don't really fit. Soviet bullets are 7.62X54R, finnish are 7.62X53R. There's a difference. Using finnish rounds in a soviet rifle will result in a MOA of about a foot.
It's a nifty weapon. And it is a weapon. This thing was expressly made to kill huge numbers of people, and has so far been successful. Sort of like the polar opposite of the AR-15.
Overall, as a rifle, this is the worst I own. As a battlefield implement, it's one of the best there ever was. Why?
It's so simple that any moron can use one after 15 seconds of instructions, and so tough that you can use it to tear down buildings. Whenever you hold one, you feel that you are armed. Especially if you attach the bayonet. If you're after a sporing gun, get a Tikka or a Remington 700. If you want to arm a militia, get some Mosins.
Get one if you can. They're cheap.